Tanzania, the largest country in East Africa, includes the spice islands of Zanzibar, Pemba, and Mafia
and contains Africa's highest point—Kilimanjaro, at 5,895 meters (19,340 feet). Kilimanjaro, a dormant volcano,
is snow capped even though it is near the Equator. The African population consists of more than 120 ethnic groups.
Tanganyika, a British-controlled UN trust territory, gained independence in 1961; and Zanzibar, a British protectorate
with an Arab population, became independent in 1963. Tanganyika and Zanzibar united to form Tanzania in 1964.
Until resigning as president in 1985, independence leader Julius K. Nyerere guided two decades of socialism—adapted
to the ujamaa policy of village farming. A multiparty system was established in 1992 after a constitutional amendment.
Tanzania Flag and Fast Facts
Dar es Salaam (administrative); 2,683,000—Dodoma (legislative); 155,000
945,087 square kilometers
(364,900 square miles)
Kiswahili, Kiungujo, English, Arabic, many local languages
Christian, Muslim, indigenous beliefs